Operator Driven Reliability

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Reliability cannot be driven by the maintenance organization. It must be driven by the operations … and led from the top.

1 Introduction

2 Terminology

3 The Role of Operations

4 Total Productive Maintenance (TPM)

5 Workplace Organization: 5S

6 Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE)

7 Measures of Performance

8 Summary


Learning goals:

• The role of operators in sustaining and improving reliability

• Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) and its implementation

• Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE)

• Workplace design

• Implementation of the 5S program to optimize productivity

1 Introduction

In Section 1, we discussed the objective of the maintenance and reliability organization: to insure that the assets are available to produce quality products and to provide quality service in a cost-effective manner when needed. The performance of an asset is based on three factors:

• Reliability (inherent) - how was it designed?

• Maintenance plan - how will it be maintained?

• Operating environment - in what environment and with what methods will it be operated?

The reliability and maintenance plan factors are discussed in several other sections. The third factor, the operating environment, will be discussed in this section. This factor includes the skills of the operators and the operating conditions under which the asset performs. Several studies have indicated that more than 40% of failures are the direct result of operational errors or unsuitable operating conditions. These failures, and those created by the asset itself due to faulty inherent design can be minimized or eliminated if operators have a good understanding of the asset and the manner in which it’s operated affects the overall performance. Operators must feel responsible for the proper operation of the assets under their control. They live and breathe with them. They can sense if something is wrong or abnormal about that asset's operation or condition.

For example, consider the car you drive to work every day. If it does not sound right or starts rough, if the brakes are making a noise, or if the car takes extra distance to stop, you - as the operator - will be first to notice the abnormal condition of the car. As the primary operator of the car (asset), you know that something is wrong as you are driving (operating). You then take corrective actions (fix it yourself or get it repaired at a service location).

Similarly, the operator of an asset can sense if there is something abnormal or out of the ordinary with the asset. Often these incipient problems can be corrected cost-effectively by the operators themselves or with timely help from the maintainers. However, if incipient problems are not corrected in time, they may result in bigger failures costing many times more to fix. In fact, operators should be the first line of defense in watching abnormal conditions of an asset and initiating corrective actions. But, many organizations haven't been able to involve them successfully in maintenance because our work culture has been undergoing changes over the last several decades.

There are two primary reasons for this type of work culture:

1. Division of operations and maintenance labor

2. Historical reward system

A clear division of labor exists in the workforce today. The production department operates the assets and the maintenance department fixes when they break. Maintenance is about restoring assets to an optimum operational state. For a maintenance team that has historically defined itself as the "fix-it" guys, a paradigm shift to a culture of reliability challenges their self-preservation. They think, "If assets aren't failing, the value of their contribution goes unnoticed and who will value their presence?"

Likewise, operators just want to operate the assets without any regard to their maintenance needs and proper operating conditions. They some times have trouble seeing the overall picture. They can help in reducing the number of failures by getting involved, taking proactive actions, catching failures in early stages, and working with maintenance in a timely fashion to get them attended. Thus, there is a need for responsible ownership from both sides.

For decades, we have used a reward system that has created a mis aligned culture. Design teams are rewarded for achieving functional capability at the lowest cost, not really concerned about the downstream problems for operations and maintenance and the true life-cycle cost of ownership of the asset. Production teams are rewarded when they beat a production number, regardless of any real demand for the product and with out any concern for the effect their actions have on asset health.

Maintenance teams have typically been rewarded for fixing asset failures and not improving reliability or availability. They get extra pay for coming in at inconvenient times when the asset is broken and get "well done!" from management when they fix it. If we are rewarded for failures, why would we want reliability? Who would step up and volunteer for a 15-20% pay cut for reduced overtime?

People don't pay as much attention to what their managers say com pared to what they actually do. If management says they want reliability -- no failures or minimum failures -- but they keep paying for failures, we will continue to get failures. This culture needs to be changed and improved.

Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) is a practice originated in Japan that addresses problems between an organization's maintenance and other departments, primarily production/operations. Most organizations are structured with maintenance on one side and operations on the other side.

Although all departments have the same goal - to be a productive unit in the organization - the organizational lines frequently get in the way, causing delays and production stoppages. TPM helps to reduce or eliminate some of these issues.

An effective workplace design includes a targeted list of activities and also promotes organization and efficiency within a workspace. These activities are known as five S (5S). The maintenance and production departments need to work together in a cohesive manner to deliver a high-quality product in a waste-free, cost-effective manner. Virtually every major management philosophy and methodology in practice today recognizes and fosters the integral relation ship between the maintenance and production/operations departments.

Just-In-Time (JIT) and Lean Manufacturing methods would not be possible without high levels of asset reliability and availability, driven by active operator involvement in the maintenance process.

In this section, we will discuss the role of operations in sustaining and improving the reliability and availability of the assets and systems while lowering overall cost at the same time - in other words, an operator based reliability.

2 Terminology

Availability (OEE related)

Availability is defined as the percentage of actual time that an asset has operated (uptime) compared to how long it was scheduled to operate.

Five S (5S)

5S is a structured program to achieve organization-wide cleanliness and standardization in the workplace. A well-organized workplace results in a safer, more efficient, and productive operation. It consists of five elements: Sort, Set in Order, Shine, Standardize, and Sustain.

Operator Driven Reliability (ODR)

Equipment operator helps improve reliability by identifying potential equipment problems and failures early. The operator then fixes them if minor or if major, gets them repaired with the help of maintenance in a planned manner. ODR is also called Operator-Based Reliability (OBR) or Operator-Based Maintenance (OBM) Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) OEE is a measure of equipment or process effectiveness based on actual availability, performance, and quality of product or output. It’s calculated by multiplying these three factors and then expressed as a percentage. The objective of OEE is to identify sources of waste and inefficiencies that reduce avail ability, performance, and quality (defects). Corrective actions can then be taken to improve the process.

Total Effective Equipment Performance (TEEP) TEEP is a measure of overall asset or process effectiveness. It’s based on four factors: utilization, availability, performance, and quality. TEEP is calculated by multiplying these four factors and is then expressed as a percentage. It can also be calculated by multiplying the utilization rate with OEE. The objective of TEEP is to measure how well an organization creates lasting value from its assets.

Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) A maintenance strategy that originated in Japan; it emphasizes operations and maintenance cooperation. Its goal includes zero defects, zero accidents, zero breakdowns, and an effective workplace design to reduce overall operations and maintenance costs. Utilization Rate The percentage of time an asset is scheduled to operate divided by the total available time (which could be 24 hours a day, 365 days a year, etc.).

Visual Workplace

A visual workplace uses visual displays to relay information to employees and guide their actions. The workplace is setup with signs, labels, color-coded markings, etc., so that anyone unfamiliar with the assets or process can readily identify what is going on, understand the process, and know both what is being done correctly and what is out of place.

FIG. 1 lists Japanese words and definitions that have a special industrial meaning. Some of these words are becoming part of our routine work place terminology.

FIG. 1 M&R Related Japanese Words & Definition

3 The Role of Operations

The concept of Operator Driven Reliability (ODR) - sometimes called Operator-Based Reliability or OBR - is an integral part of an overall proactive maintenance strategy.

The objective of ODR is to help keep plants running better, longer, cost-effectively, and competitively by reducing unplanned downtime and increasing uptime of production processes and associated assets.

By proactively identifying problems, operators can eliminate or reduce failures, thereby increasing reliability. Owning and operating assets constitutes one of the biggest factors in the total cost in a plant.

Reducing that cost by increasing asset uptime can generate additional profits without any additional expenditures.

Under the ODR concept, operators perform basic maintenance activities beyond their classic operator duties. They take responsibility to observe and record the asset's overall health by checking for leaks and noises, monitoring temperature, vibration, and any abnormal asset/system conditions. In some cases, operators correct the minor deficiencies they find. They perform tasks such as cleaning, minor adjustments, lubrication, and simple preventive and corrective tasks traditionally handled by the maintenance technician. These tasks represent a departure from their traditional role as just an equipment operator. ODR encourages production to interact with maintenance and other departments as a team to reduce the number of failures, thus improving plant-wide asset reliability.

In most cases, the original equipment manufacturers (OEM) recommend how equipment should be operated. OEM recommendations are sometimes made without any understanding or appreciation for the process or environment in which the asset is actually operated. The OEM also has very little if any knowledge of the operator's skill sets. Usually they also require operators and maintainers to do a lot more than what really is needed to preserve the asset's functions. This may result in too many PM tasks and unnecessary inspections as well as time wasted collecting irrelevant information.

With operators taking responsibility for identifying problems, the probability of detecting early asset failures rises exponentially. This improvement can contribute to increased asset reliability at much lower cost due to earlier fault detection.

In many organizations, maintenance and operations departments function virtually independently of each other, effectively divorced with separate agendas. Such situations don’t turn out well for organizations striving to improve productivity and profitability. ODR can serve as a bridge to those achievements by fostering and promoting internal dialogue and offering a cost-effective way to improve asset reliability. ODR can encourage a culture that won’t tolerate failures; it can maximize cross-functional teamwork and identify many previously hidden opportunities for continuous improvements.

The ODR concept is similar to another maintenance strategy known as Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) which was developed in Japan in the early 1960s. TPM will be discussed in detail in the next section.

4 Total Productive Maintenance (TPM)

Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) is a team-based asset management strategy that emphasizes cooperation between operations and maintenance departments with a goal of zero defects, zero breakdowns, zero accidents, and an effective workplace design.

TPM seeks to engage all levels of an organization with their different functions in an effort to maximize the overall effectiveness of production assets. This helps to bring improvements in existing processes and asset availability by reducing mistakes and accidents. Traditionally, the maintenance department manages the plant's maintenance programs, but TPM seeks to involve employees in all departments - including production and maintenance at all levels from the plant floor to senior executives - to insure effective asset operation.

TPM is based around the following principles:

• Improving asset and equipment effectiveness

• Autonomous maintenance by operators

• Servicing, adjustments, and minor repairs

• Planned maintenance by maintenance department

• Training to improve operation and maintenance skills

• Better workplace design including standardization of procedures and cleanliness

TPM is an innovative Japanese concept. The origin of TPM can be traced back to the 1960s when preventive maintenance was introduced in Japan. Nippondenso, a Toyota part supplier, was the first company to introduce a plant-wide preventive maintenance program in 1960.

However later with the increasing automation of assets and systems at Nippondenso, the maintenance program needed to perform additional work; more maintenance personnel were required. Management decided that the routine maintenance of equipment would be carried out by the equipment operators themselves. The maintenance group took the responsibility for major repairs and essential maintenance tasks. This practice was later called autonomous maintenance, which became one of the pillars of TPM. In this model, after establishing a preventive maintenance program, Nippondenso also added the autonomous maintenance work to be done by the equipment operators. The maintenance department concentrated on equipment PMs and process modifications for improving reliability.

These improved modifications were also incorporated into new equipment designs leading to the reduction or prevention of maintenance work.

Thus preventive maintenance, along with maintenance prevention and design improvement, gave birth to Productive Maintenance. The aim of productive maintenance was to maximize plant and equipment effectiveness to achieve the optimum life cycle cost for production equipment.

Nippondenso was also involved in forming quality circles, which facilitated the employee's participation in improving quality of their products. All Nippondenso employees got involved in implementing Productive Maintenance. Because all (or the total) plant employees participated in implementing productive maintenance, Seiichi Nakajima of the Japanese Institute of Plant Engineers (JIPE), who led this effort, named the concept Total Productive Maintenance (TPM). Based on these developments, Nippondenso was awarded the distinguished plant prize for developing and implementing TPM. Thus Nippondenso of the Toyota group became the first company to obtain the TPM certification.

The TPM program closely resembles the popular Total Quality Management (TQM) program. Many of the tools used in TQM, such as employee empowerment, benchmarking, and documentation, are also used to implement and optimize TPM. The following shows the similarities between the two programs.

a) Total commitment to the program by upper level management.

b) Employees must be empowered to initiate corrective action

c) A long-term strategy is required as it may take a long time to implement programs and make them a part of the routine, ongoing process

d) Cultural change - new mindsets are required

Right from the start, TPM requires effective leadership and involvement of all employees from a craft person to senior managers. That is part of the meaning of "total" in Total Productive Maintenance. TPM holds people accountable for performing highly specified (or specialized) work and improved equipment performance. Without management support, TPM will become a program of the month, and will die. Many of today's business leaders have risen through the ranks when maintenance was responsible only for fixing equipment and not for preventing failures. Viewing maintenance as a non-value-added support function often leads to severe cost-cutting measures. In turn, this step results in higher costs due to decreased equipment effectiveness.

TPM Objectives and Benefits

The objectives of TPM are to:

1. Achieve zero defects, zero breakdowns, and zero accidents in all functional areas of the organization.

2. Involve people at all levels of the organization.

These goals are accomplished by involving all employees in small group activities that identify both the causes of failures and opportunities for plant and equipment modifications. They are also accomplished by adopting the life cycle approach for improving the overall performance of production equipment.

Benefits of TPM

1. Increased productivity

2. Reduced manufacturing cost

3. Reduction in customer complaints.

4. Satisfy the customer's needs by 100%

• Delivering the right quantity

• At the right time

• With best, required quality

5. Reduced safety incidents and environmental concerns.

In addition, TPM creates a positive work culture and environment to:

• Build a higher level of confidence among the employees

• Keep the workplace clean, neat, and attractive

• Favorable / positive attitude of the operators and maintainers

• Deployment of a new concept in all areas of the organization

• Share knowledge and experience

The employees are empowered and gain a real sense of owning the assets they operate.

TPM Pillars

TPM consists of eight pillars of activities that impact all areas of the organization. These pillars are:

Pillar #1 Autonomous Maintenance (Jishu Hozen)

This pillar is geared towards developing operators to be able to take care of small maintenance tasks. This ability in turn frees up the skilled maintenance people to spend time on higher value-added activities and technical repairs, instead of fire-fighting, breakdown maintenance. Under this concept, operators are responsible for upkeep of their equipment to prevent them from deterioration-induced breakdowns.

Implementing autonomous maintenance requires not only a change in organization culture, but also a heavy investment in training. Operators who have always said "That's not my job -- call maintenance," must now acquire a sense of ownership. They must also acquire the skills to properly implement their new accountability. Operators will now keep the equipment clean, lubricated, and secure. Minor repairs and adjustments also become part of the operator's responsibility. Operators need to be trained to inspect, measure, and continuously diagnose and fix problems.

In carrying out these responsibilities, operators need to learn more about their equipment and become better equipped to detect problems early. Therefore, they take corrective action at the right time and become key members of the team to improve equipment effectiveness.

Management must promote a working environment that fosters positive change. This change can be accomplished through their increased involvement in the program, by providing physical surroundings conducive to work. Positive change also requires monetary support for the TPM program and for implementation of the ideas it generates.

The goals of autonomous maintenance are:

• Uninterrupted operation of equipment

• Operators to operate and maintain the equipment

• Elimination of the defects and potential failures at source quickly

• Involvement of all employees to solve problems through active participation

5S, also known as workplace organization, is an important practice.

To some authors, it’s a part of the autonomous maintenance pillar. To others it’s a separate pillar by itself. But 5S is a key element of operator-driven reliability and a foundation of TPM. We will discuss 5S in more detail later in this section.

Overall equipment effectiveness (OEE) is a key metric in determining how well equipment is performing with regards to losses. OEE measures equipment effectiveness in terms of availability, performance, and product quality. Details of OEE will be discussed in Section 7.6.

Pillar #2 Focused Improvement - Kaizen (Kobetsu)

This pillar is aimed at reducing losses in the workplace to improve operational efficiencies. Kai' means change, and Zen means good. Kaizen is a collection of small improvements that produces amazing results when carried out on a continual basis; it involves all employees in a group or team. The goals of Kaizen improvement are:

• Zero losses - identify and eliminate losses

• Remove unsafe conditions

• Improve effectiveness of all equipment

• Reduce O&M costs

The following are six major losses that can become a focus of kaizen teams to improve effectiveness:

1. Breakdown losses

2. Setup and adjustment losses

3. Idling and minor stoppage losses

4. Speed losses

5. Defective product losses (quality) and rework

6. Equipment design losses

Breakdown losses:

Breakdown losses are equipment-related losses resulting from failures, breakdowns, and repairs. Costs can include down time and lost production opportunity, labor, and material costs.

Setup and adjustment losses

These losses result from equipment setups and adjustments that occur during product changeovers, shift changes, or other changes in operating conditions.

Minor stoppage losses

These losses are the result of short but frequent production stoppages from zero to few minutes in length (less than 5-6 minutes). They are usually difficult to record. As a result, these losses are usually hidden from production reports. These are built into machine capabilities, but provide substantial opportunities for improving production efficiencies.

Speed losses Sometime equipment must be slowed down to prevent quality defects or minor stoppages, resulting in production losses. In most cases, this loss is not recorded because the equipment continues to operate.

Quality defect losses These losses result from out-of-spec production and defects due to equipment malfunction or poor performance, leading to output which must be reworked or scrapped as waste.

Equipment design losses

These losses are typical of heavy wear and tear on equipment due to "non-robust" design, which reduces their durable and productive life span. Such designs lead to more frequent equipment modifications and capital improvements.

By using a detailed and thorough analysis, equipment design losses are reduced or eliminated in a systematic manner using tools such as Pareto, 5-Why Analysis, and Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA). The use of such tools are not limited to production areas, but can be employed in administrative and service areas as well to eliminate losses or waste. These and other improvement tools are discussed in more detail in Section 11. Pillar #3 Planned Maintenance

Planned maintenance and improvement are carried out by the maintenance department. These planned maintenance tasks are usually beyond the scope of the autonomous maintenance program. They require special skills, significant disassembly, special measuring techniques and tools, etc. As equipment operators improve their skills, the maintenance group performs fewer and fewer planned maintenance activities and starts focusing their efforts instead on improvements that are designed to reduce the maintenance requirements of the equipment, thus reducing overall maintenance work.

Pillar #4 Quality Maintenance

This pillar focuses on eliminating product quality related to non-conformances in a systematic manner. As operators gain understanding of how various equipment components affect the product quality, they begin to eliminate the current quality issues and then prepare to tackle potential quality concerns. At this point, operators start making the transition from a reactive to proactive approach, that is, from quality control to quality assurance.

The aim is to delight customers by providing the highest quality products while at the same time achieving defect-free production.

Pillar #5 Training and Development

Under this pillar we assess technical training needs, determine the current status of skill sets, and establish a training plan based on the gap analysis. The goal is to have a multi-skilled workforce and to create a cadre of experts for supporting all aspects of TPM. The purpose of providing training is to upgrade the skill set of operators. It’s not sufficient to have only "Know-How" skills. They must also

"Know-Why." Appropriate training can improve their skill sets to per form root cause analysis and other tasks required to improve equipment effectiveness and reduce costs.

Pillar #6 Design and Early Equipment Management

In this pillar, the lessons of successes and failures of TPM activities are incorporated into the design of new equipment and products. The goal is to produce almost perfect equipment and better quality products by taking care of inefficiencies and safety issues during the design, build, and commissioning processes.

Maintenance Prevention (MP), which is Design and Early Equipment Management, involves discovering weak points in the currently-used equipment and feeding this information back to the equipment design engineers. It’s similar to design for manufacturability. MP design takes the following factors into consideration:

1. Ease of autonomous maintenance (operator maintenance)

2. Ease of operation

3. Ease of maintenance - improving maintainability

4. Improving quality

5. Safety

Early equipment management is a system for dealing with problems that surface during the commissioning and start-up of new equipment.

During this period, engineering personnel from production and maintenance / reliability must correct problems caused by poor selection of materials at the design stage and by errors occurring during fabrication and installation of the equipment.

Pillar #7 Office Improvement

In this pillar, the objective is both to eliminate efficiency losses in the office and service areas and to implement tools such as 5S in order to create an organized and efficient office environment. This can be aimed at logistics, scheduling, HR, accounting, and other areas of the plant administrative support.

Pillar #8 Safety, Health, and Environment

In this pillar, the focus is on the 100% elimination of accidents as well as on employee health and environmental concerns. The focus is to create a safe workplace and surroundings with the following goals:

• Zero accidents

• Zero health concerns (damage)

• Zero environmental incidents Many consider this pillar the base of all the pillars.

Implementing TPM

Many successful organizations usually follow an implementation plan that includes the following 10 steps:

Step 1: Announcement of TPM.

Top management needs to create an environment that will support the introduction of TPM. Without the support of management, skepticism and resistance will kill the initiative.

Step 2: Launch a formal education program.

This program informs and educates everyone in the organization about TPM activities, benefits, and the importance of contribution from everyone.

Step 3: Create an organizational support structure.

This group will promote, coordinate, and sustain team-based TPM activities. It needs to include members from every level of the organization -- from management to the shop floor. This structure will promote communication and will guarantee everyone is working toward the same goals.

Step 4: Establish basic TPM policies and quantifiable goals.

Analyze the existing conditions, and then establish TPM policies and set attainable and realistic goals.

Step 5: Outline a detailed master deployment plan.

This plan will identify what resources will be needed as well as when they will be needed for training, equipment restoration and improvements, maintenance management systems, and new technologies.

Step 6: TPM kick-off. TPM implementation will begin at this stage.

Step 7: Improve the effectiveness of each piece of equipment.

Operations and Maintenance Kaizen teams will analyze each piece of equipment and implement necessary improvements on a continuing basis.

• Step 7a: Develop an autonomous maintenance program for operators. Operators will routinely clean, inspect, and perform minor maintenance tasks that will help to stabilize and improve equipment conditions.

• Step 7b: Develop a planned or preventive maintenance pro gram. Create a schedule for preventive maintenance on each piece of equipment.

• Step 7c: Identify losses / waste and implement reduction plan. Create Kaizen teams to eliminate or reduce waste.

Step 8: Conduct training to improve operation and maintenance skills.

The maintenance department will take on the role of trainers or guides and provide training, advice, and equipment information to the operators (Kaizen teams). Step 9: Develop an early equipment management program.

Lessons learned in operations and maintenance should be communicated to the design process of new equipment development. Reliability and maintainability should be built into the new design.

Step 10: Continuous improvement.

As in any lean initiative, the organization needs to develop a continuous improvement mindset.

5 Workplace Organization: 5S

Five S (5S) is a technique to reduce waste and optimize productivity by maintaining an orderly workplace and using visual cues to achieve more consistent operational results. 5S promotes a cleaner environment and a better organized workplace.

It’s a structured program to achieve total organization-wide cleanliness and standardization in the workplace. A well-organized workplace results in a safer, more efficient, and more productive operation. It boosts the morale of the employees, promoting a sense of pride in their work, and a responsible ownership of their equipment.

5S was invented in Japan and stands for five Japanese words that start with the letter S: Seiri, Seiton, Seiso, Seiketsu, and Shitsuke. An equivalent set of five S words in English has been adopted by many to preserve the 5S acronym in Japanese. These are:

S1 Sort (Seiri) S2 Set-in-Order (Seiton) S3 Shine (Seiso) S4 Standardize (Seiketsu) S5 Sustain (Shitsuke) S1 Sort (Seiri)

Sort is the first step in making a work area tidy. It refers to the act of throwing away all unwanted, unnecessary, and unrelated materials in the workplace and freeing up additional space. This step makes it easier for operators and maintainers to find the things they need. This step requires keeping only what is necessary. Materials, tools, equipment, and supplies that are not frequently used should be moved to a separate, common-storage area. Items that are not used should be discarded. Don't keep things around just because they might be used someday.

As a result of the sorting process, we will eliminate (or repair) broken equipment and tools. Obsolete fixtures, molds, jigs, scrap material, waste, and other unused items and materials are discarded.

People involved in Sort must not feel sorry about having to throw away things. The idea is to insure that everything left in the workplace is related to work. Even the number of necessary items in the workplace must be kept to its absolute minimum. Because of the Sort concept, the simplification of tasks, effective use of space, and careful purchase of items will follow.

S2 Set-in-Order (Seiton)

Set-in-order (also, sometimes known as Straighten) or orderliness is the second step and is all about efficiency. It requires organizing, arranging, and identifying everything in a work area. Everything is given an assigned place so that it can be accessed or retrieved quickly, as well as returned to that same place quickly. If everyone has quick access to specific items or materials, work flow becomes efficient, and the worker becomes productive. The correct place, position, or holder for every tool, item, or material must be chosen carefully in relation to how the work will be performed and who will use which items. Every single item must be allocated its own place for safekeeping. Each location must be labeled for easy identification of its purpose.

Commonly-used tools should be readily available. Properly label storage areas, cabinets, and shelves. Clean and paint floors to make it easier to spot dirt, waste materials, and dropped parts and tools. Outline areas on the floor to identify work areas, movement lanes, storage areas, finished product areas, etc. Put shadows on tool boards, making it easy to quickly see where each tool belongs.

In an office environment, provide bookshelves for frequently used manuals, books, and catalogs. Label the shelves and books so that they are easy to identify and return to their proper place.

Again, the objective in this step is to have a place for everything and everything in its place, with everything properly identified and labeled.

Many M&R professionals have started calling these practices of using labels, color-coded markings, etc., a visual workplace. This practice helps operators and anyone unfamiliar with the asset or process to readily identify what is going on, understand the process, and know what is to be done correctly and what is out of place. A visual workplace uses visual displays to relay information to operators and other employees, and to guide their actions.

FIG. 2a indicates safe operating parameters for oil and pressure levels and also when to tighten the chain or belt. FIG. 2b displays an organized tool box and provides examples of labels applied to a switch box and a Danger Area. FIG. 2c demonstrates the ASME standard color code scheme suggested for piping. FIG. 2d shows examples of color-coded pipes and hoses.

FIG. 2a Safe oil and pressure levels and chain tightening

FIG. 2b Organized tool box and labeling

FIG. 2c ASME Standard Color Codes

FIG. 2d Examples of Color-Coded Pipes and Hoses

S3 Shine (Seiso)

Shine is all about cleanliness and housekeeping. The Seiso principle says that everyone is a janitor. The step consists of cleaning up the work place and giving it a shine. Cleaning must be done by everyone in the organization, from operators to managers. It would be a good idea to have every area of the workplace assigned to a person or group of persons for cleaning. Everyone should see the workplace through the eyes of a visitor -- always wondering if it’s clean enough to make a good impression.

While cleaning, it's easy to inspect the equipment, machines, tools, and supplies we work with. Regular cleaning and inspection makes it easy to spot lubricant leaks, equipment misalignment, breakage, missing tools, and low levels of supplies. Problems can be identified and fixed when they are small. If these minor problems are not addressed while small, they could lead to equipment failure, unplanned outages, or long, unproductive waits while new supplies are delivered.

When done on a regular, frequent basis, cleaning and inspecting generally won’t take a lot of time. In the long run, they will most likely save time.

S4 Standardize (Seiketsu)

The fourth step is to simplify and standardize. Seiketsu translates to standards for all operational activities, including cleanliness. It consists of defining the standards by which personnel must measure and maintain operating and maintaining standards such as lubrication plans, filter change out instructions, or measures of cleanliness. Visual management is an important ingredient of Seiketsu. Color-coding and standardized coloration of surroundings are used for easier visual identification of anomalies in the surroundings. Employees are trained to detect abnormalities using their five senses and to correct such abnormalities immediately.

One of the hardest steps is avoiding old work habits. It's easy to slip back into what we have been doing for years. That's what everyone is familiar with. It feels comfortable.

The good practices developed in earlier steps should be standardized and made easy to accomplish. As we learn more, update and modify the standards to make the process simpler and easier.

S5 Sustain (Shitsuke)

The final step is to sustain the gain by continuing education, training, and maintaining the standards. In fact, Shitsuke means discipline. It promotes commitment to maintaining orderliness and to practicing the first four steps as a way of life. The emphasis of Shitsuke is elimination of bad habits and constant practice of good ones.

Continue to educate people about maintaining standards. When there are changes such as new equipment, new products, and new work rules that will affect the 5S program, adjustments will be needed to accommodate those changes, to modify changes in the standards, and to provide training that addresses those changes.

If your organization is planning to implement Lean Manufacturing, 5S is one of the first activities that need to be carried out once Lean has been adopted.

Some organizations have added a sixth S to emphasize safety in their program, calling the program 5S Plus or 6S.

6 Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE)

Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) is a key metric used in TPM and Lean Manufacturing programs to measure the effectiveness of TPM and other initiatives. It provides an overall framework for measuring production efficiency. OEE is the traditional and most widely used metric to measure equipment and asset productivity based on actual availability, performance efficiency, and product quality. However, true equipment productivity is measured by Total Effective Equipment Performance (TEEP), which is based on 24 hours per day and 365 days per year operations. TEEP also considers equipment utilization.

OEE and TEEP measure the overall utilization of assets and equipment for manufacturing operations, directly indicating the gap between actual and ideal performance. OEE quantifies how well a manufacturing unit performs relative to its designed capacity, during the periods when it’s scheduled to run. TEEP measures how well an organization creates value from its assets by effective utilization based on 24 hours per day, 365 days per year availability.

OEE and TEEP are calculated as: OEE = Availability X Performance X Quality TEEP = Utilization X Availability X Performance X Quality TEEP = Utilization X OEE

OEE breaks the performance of an asset into three separate but measurable elements: availability, performance, and quality. Each element points to an aspect of the process that can be targeted for improvement.

OEE may be applied to any individual asset or to a process. It’s unlikely that any manufacturing process can run at 100% OEE. Many manufacturers benchmark their industry to set a challenging target; 85% is not uncommon.

FIG. 3 illustrates the concept of OEE and TEEP and how different production losses impacts productivity.


Calculating OEE OEE = Availability x Performance x Quality

Example 7.1

A given asset, a machining center, experiences the following: Availability of asset = 88.0% Asset Performance = 93.0% Quality it produces = 95.0% OEE = 88% (Availability) X 93% (Performance) X 95% (Quality) = 77.7% Calculating TEEP TEEP = Utilization X Availability X Performance X Quality

Example 7.2

Whereas OEE measures effectiveness based on scheduled hours, TEEP measures effectiveness against 24 hours per day, 365 days per year operation. In the example above, suppose this same asset - the machining center - operates 20 hours a day, 300 days in a year.

OEE of machinating center (calculated above) = 77.7%

Machining Center Utilization

= (20 hours X 300 days) / (24 hours X 365 days) = 68.5% TEEP = 68.5% (Utilization) X 77.7% (OEE) = 53.2% Example 7.3

A six-station hammer assembly machine shows the following operational data from the CMMS and operational log of an assembly machine.

Machine Cycle Time (design): 1 unit/minute

Scheduled Time:

2 shifts/day X 10 hours/shift X 250 days/year = 5,000 hours/year Note that 5 days of production were cancelled in the year, including 4 days due to lack of wood handles (raw material) and 1 day due to loss of electric power resulting from a winter storm.

Scheduled Downtime:

5 PMs, each at 1000 operating hours, each requiring 2 people at 8 hours each of downtime (16 man hours per PM)

1 PM at 5000 operating hours, requiring 4 people each working 10 hours of downtime (40 man hours per PM)

50 weekly checks by operators, 30 minutes each

10 planned repairs requiring a total of 55 hours of downtime

50 models set ups, 2 hours each

Unscheduled Downtime:

8 failures resulting in 50 hours of downtime (132 man hours of failure repair work) 22 setups and tooling changes resulting in 20 hours of downtime

Performance Losses:

Minor stoppages / jams (Less than 5 min each) 750 instances per year - average 3.2 minute each

During winter (about 120 days in year), the system runs slower in the morning for 30 minutes. This increases the machine cycle time from 1 unit/minute to 1 unit / 1.5 minutes during this period.

Quality Losses:

On average, every hour the assembly unit produces 57 good quality units, 2 units needing some repair, and 1 unit scrapped.

Calculate OEE and TEEP for this assembly system.


For example 3:

Asset Utilization

Ideally, total hours available for production

= 365 days X 24 hours/day = 8,760 hours/year Idle hours = Hours the asset doesn't run due to lack of demand or factors beyond the control of asset/plant.

= (4 hours/day X 250 days) + [24 hours X (365 - 250) days] + (24 hours X 5 days)

= 1,000 + 2760 + 120

= 3880 hours Gross hours of scheduled production

= Total available hours - Idle hours = 8760 - 3880

= 4880 hours /year Asset utilization rate

= Gross hours of scheduled production / Total available hours

= 4880 / 8760 = 55.7% Asset Availability Asset availability (%) = Uptime x 100 / (Uptime + Downtime) Uptime hours = Gross hours of scheduled production - Downtime hours Downtime hours = Scheduled and unscheduled downtime hours Scheduled downtime hours = (5 x 8) + 10 + (50 x 0.5) + 55 + (50 x 2) = 230 hours

Unscheduled downtime hours = 50 + 20 = 70 hours

Total downtime hours = 230 + 70 = 300 hours

Uptime hours = 4880 - 300 = 4580 hours

Asset availability (%) = 4580 / (4580 + 300) = 93.9%

Asset Performance

Asset performance - Efficiency in %

= Actual production rate / Designed (best)

Production rate x 100 Designed production rate or Cycle time = 1 minute /unit (60 units per hour)

Performance losses

Minor stoppages (Hours/year) = 750 X 3.2 min = 40 hours

Speed losses (machine running slow) = 120 x 0.5 x [(1.5 - 1) / 1.5]

= 20 hours/year Total Performance losses (Hours/year) = Minor stoppages + Speed losses = 40 + 20 = 60 hours

Performance Efficiency %

= (Uptime hours - Performance losses) / Uptime hours

= (4580-60) / 4580 = 98.7% Quality Losses

The quality portion of the OEE represents the good units produced as a percentage of the total units. The quality performance is a pure measurement of process yield that is designed to exclude the effects of availability and performance.

On average, the hammer assembly machine produces 57 good units per hour out of 60. The other 3 units are usually reworked or scraped.

Quality Performance (%) = 57 / 60 = 95% OEE for hammer assembly machine

= Availability X Performance X Quality

= 93.9% X 98.7% X 95% = 88.0% TEEP for hammer assembly machine

= Utilization X OEE

= 55.7% X 88.0% = 49.0% 7.7 Measures of Performance

Several measures and performance indicators indicate the efficiency of the operations. These include:

• Downtime as % of scheduled hours (operating time)

• Downtime due to operational issues

• Downtime due to maintenance

• Downtime due to other issues, e.g., design, act of God, etc..

• Total Downtime

• 5 S audit results

• % of assets covered by 5 S plus principles

• Asset - area cleanliness / housekeeping

• Asset condition - visual inspection

• Color coded labels of piping, hoses, valves, etc.

• Check lists - PMs instructions attached to the asset

• Required tools properly placed and labeled

• Asset Performance - throughput

• Output as % of designed / demonstrated capacity

• Operators - % operational personnel involved with asset improvement projects

• RCM analysis support

• Design reviews

• Kaizen activities

• Percent operators qualified / certified to operate assets and understand their role (one of the roles is to support maintenance)

• Percent assets ready - delivered on time to maintenance per agreed schedule

• OEE - Overall Equipment Effectiveness trend

• OEE - Availability X Performance X Quality

• TEEP - Total Effective Equipment Performance

• TEEP - Utilization X OEE It’s a good practice to track these performance measures on a regular basis to evaluate the improvements that have been made or to set up improvement goals.

8 Summary

Reliable equipment operating at the lowest possible cost is an essential enabler of an organization's profit. Assets and plants are often the single largest investment; it would make sense that asset reliability should be as important to the organization as are environment, health, quality, and safety.

But asset reliability has not received its due emphasis in the past. Operator Driven Reliability (ODR) and Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) strategies encourage participation of all employees, specifically operators. These strategies provide a framework for policies, procedures, and structure to have assets available and operated at the lowest cost possible.

By making equipment more efficient, TPM is focused on keeping assets functioning optimally and minimizing equipment breakdowns and associated waste. Autonomous maintenance, a key pillar of TPM, seeks to eliminate major losses that can result from faulty equipment or operation by involving operators in maintenance of equipment they operate. Under the TPM concept, equipment operators become owners of their assets. Working closely with maintenance, they take care of all details that will preserve the assets in the best possible condition.

TPM has eight pillars of activity, with an ultimate goal of zero break downs and zero accidents. These pillars are:

1. Autonomous maintenance

2. Focused improvement - Kaizen

3. Planned maintenance

4. Quality maintenance

5. Training and development

6. Design and early equipment management

7. Office improvement

8. Safety, health, and environment

Under autonomous maintenance, which is a key pillar, operators clean and lubricate the equipment and execute the recommended maintenance plan. They are empowered to modify the program according to the real needs and personal observations. The operator has access to the manufacturer specifications and the support of the maintenance technicians.

The operators also become responsible for small adjustments, checking for parts that become loose, and fixing them, as well as reporting small details like noises, vibrations, or temperature changes while operating the equipment.

An important factor in the success of the TPM program is the pride that operators experience from the optimal condition in which their equipment is preserved. A great deal of this improved effectiveness comes from the motivation given to the employees through adequate training and education.

TPM is an organization-wide equipment improvement strategy, not a maintenance improvement strategy. It requires a systematic focus on eliminating equipment-related losses. It’s not a program to just clean and paint equipment to look good. TPM demands and encourages the involvement of all employees, not merely involving operators in performing some elements of maintenance.

5S - a visual workplace system - has five elements: sort, set in order, shine, standardize, and sustain. These elements are the most fundamental and often overlooked aspects in continuous improvement initiatives. 5S is a structured program. If properly implemented, it can achieve total organization-wide cleanliness and standardization in the workplace.

A well-organized workplace results in a safer, more efficient, and more productive operation. It boosts the morale of the employees, promoting a sense of pride in their work and ownership of their responsibilities.

Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) is a key metric that quantifies how well an asset or a manufacturing process performs relative to its designed capacity, during the periods when it’s scheduled to run. It’s calculated by multiplying asset availability, performance, and quality of products it produces. Another TPM related metric is Total Equipment Effectiveness Performance (TEEP) which measures how well an organization creates value from its assets based on 24 hours per day, 365 days per year availability.

The benefits of TPM are:

• Safer workplace

• Employee empowerment and improved morale

• Increased production / output

• No or minimum defects

• No or minimum breakdowns

• No or fewer short stoppages

• Decreased waste

• Decreased O&M costs

Total Productive Maintenance thrives on the spirit of teamwork. It has a long-range outlook and may take years to implement. It works not only in the manufacturing industry, but also in the service industry, construction, building maintenance, and other industrial situations.


__1 Explain operator-driven reliability. Why is the operator's involvement important in maintenance?

__2 Define TPM. What are TPM's various elements - the pillars of TPM?

__3 How do we implement TPM?

__4 Define OEE. How do we measure it?

__5 What is the difference between OEE and TEEP?

__6 Explain 5S. What benefits do we derive from implementing 5S?

__7 What is the difference between 5S plus or 6S?

__8 Explain what is meant by the visual workplace?

__9 Explain Muda, Mura, and Muri?

__10 What are the benefits of standardizing?


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