Work Management: Planning and Scheduling

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1 Introduction

2 Terminology

3 Work Flow and Roles

4 Work Classification and Prioritization

5 Planning Process

6 Scheduling Process

7 Turnarounds and Shutdowns

8 Measures of Performance

9 Summary

10 Quiz

Learning goals:

• The basic work flow process

• The role of planners, schedulers, and others in managing work

• Work classification and prioritization

• The importance of backlog management

• Why planning is necessary

• The planning process

• Why scheduling is necessary

• The scheduling process

• Turnaround management

1 Introduction

Maintenance tasks should be performed efficiently to ensure plant capacity is sustained cost effectively. In the previous sections, we discussed developing the proper maintenance tasks to keep our assets working. In order to reduce overall operations and maintenance costs, these tasks must be executed efficiently and effectively. Basically this is achieved by eliminating or minimizing avoidable delays and wait time.

Imagine yourself repairing a leaky faucet or dishwasher at home. Your spouse has asked you repeatedly to fix it. Finally you find the time to take on this assignment. Can you recall the number of times you went back and forth to the garage, to the tool box, or to the hardware store to acquire the correct-sized tool, washer, or seal? It probably took about four or more hours to finish this task.

Imagine again, a couple of months later, a similar type of problem occurred. This time you are not available and your spouse calls a plumber.

The plumber comes in and assesses the problem, goes back to the truck, gets the right tools and parts, corrects the problem, and leaves in 40-45 minutes. Does this sound familiar? Maybe if you had the right tools and right parts, and better instructions, your task would have taken less than 2 hours instead of 4 hours? The point here is, proper work planning with the right tools, parts, and instructions can save time and avoid wasteful activities.

FIG. 1 shows a job without planning (sometimes called "on-the run" planning) and one with proper planning. FIG. 1a shows a disorganized work activity with frequent work interruptions and restarts, evidence of inadequate planning.

FIG. 1 Impact of Planning

The frequent work interruptions encountered could be due to a lack of availability of the right parts or tools, or improper work instructions. A well-planned job with upfront planning and no interruptions is shown in FIG. 1b. Planned and scheduled jobs take substantially less time than unplanned jobs.

For many years, industry experts have pointed to the low productivity levels in maintenance departments of many companies around the world. Several studies and survey results reported at major Maintenance and Reliability conferences such as IMC (International Maintenance Conference) and SMRP have indicated that maintenance craft productivity varies anywhere from 30-50%, or 3-4 hours of average productive time for an 8-hour shift. Some call this productive time "wrench time," during which maintenance craft personnel actually spend their efforts repairing the assets, as opposed to walking to the store to get the right tools, receiving unclear instructions, waiting for other craft to arrive or release of the asset from operations, and other wasteful activities.

In general, every hour invested in work planning saves 1-3 hours in work execution. Abraham Lincoln once said "If I had eight hours to cut a tree, I'd spend six hours in sharpening the axe." There are, of course, some managers who say they would be thrilled to hear that their maintenance craft workers are sitting idle most of the time waiting for breakdowns to happen. The "Maytag repairman" image of a maintenance department should not be compared to a fire department, where fewer fires to battle are better. A maintenance department can be far more productive in so many ways, becoming proactive instead of responding to emergencies like fire departments. Maintenance departments should be performing preventive and condition-based maintenance tasks, participating in process improvement projects, and working on cap ital improvement initiatives. Maintenance workers can upgrade their skills, train others, and educate operators to run the assets properly to minimize errors. In essence, good planning and scheduling avoids delays and minimizes wait time, other wasteful activities, and non-productive work.

Planning and scheduling (P&S) is a disciplined approach both for utilizing maintenance resources effectively and for executing maintenance tasks such as PM/CBM or corrective maintenance tasks efficiently. This is accomplished through:

• Defining and clarifying the right work

• Prioritizing work

• Developing the work sequence and steps to complete the task

• Identifying necessary tools, materials, and skills sets

• Assuring on-schedule availability of materials and assets

• Scheduling the work to be done with agreement from production on scheduled time

• Ensuring details of completed work are documented in CMMS

A work plan is the key deliverable of the planning process. This product is where the largest gains in productivity can be made. In some organizations, a single person provides both planning and scheduling functions. In larger organizations, these functions are often split, allowing additional resources for each role.

To move from reactive to proactive maintenance, at least 80% of the work should be planned on a weekly basis. Compliance to this work schedule should be at least 90%.

In this section, we will discuss the "what and how" of planning and scheduling maintenance tasks so that they can be executed effectively as well as some associated topics (work flow and roles, work categorization and priority, turnarounds, etc.). Some of the key terms we will be using follow.

2 Terminology

Bill of Material (BOM)

A list of materials needed to complete a particular assembly or fabrication job. The BOM can also be a listing of items necessary to support the operations and maintenance of an asset or component.

CMMS / EAM (Computerized Maintenance Management System / Enterprise Asset Management)

A software system that keeps record and tracks all maintenance activities, e.g., maintenance work orders, PM schedules, PM masters, material parts, work plans, and asset history. Usually it’s integrated with support systems such as inventory control, purchasing, accounting, manufacturing, and controls maintenance and warehouse activities.


Individuals who oversee the execution of all work within a facility, including maintenance. They are accountable to the asset or process owner for insuring that the asset or process is available to perform its function in a safe and efficient manner and to help prioritize the work according to the operational needs.

Planned Work

Work that has gone through a formal planning process to identify labor, materials, tools, work sequence, safety requirements, etc., to perform that work effectively. This information is assembled into a job plan or work package and is communicated to craft workers prior to the start of the work.


A dedicated role with the single function of planning work tasks and activities. Planning

The process of determining the resources and method needed including safety precautions, tools, skills, and time necessary to perform maintenance work efficiently and effectively. Planning is different from scheduling. In short, planning defines what and how, whereas scheduling defines who and when.

Preventive Maintenance (PM) Schedule Compliance

The number of PM work orders (or labor hours) completed, including PdM/CBM, divided by the total number of PM work orders (or labor hours) scheduled during a specific time period.

Schedule Compliance

A measure of adherence to the schedule. It’s calculated by the number of scheduled jobs (or scheduled labor hours) actually accomplished during the period covered by an approved daily/weekly schedule, expressed as a percentage.

Scheduled Work

The work that has been identified in advance and is logged in a schedule so that it may be accomplished in a timely manner based upon its criticality.


Individuals who establish daily, weekly, monthly, and/or rolling yearly maintenance work schedules of executable work in their facility. The schedule includes who will perform and when the work will be performed. The schedule is developed in concert with the maintenance craft supervisor and operations.


The process of determining which jobs get worked on, when, and by whom based on the priority, the resources, and asset availability. The scheduling process should take place before the job is executed. In short, scheduling defines when and who execute the work tasks.


Planned shutdown of equipment, production line, or process unit to clean, change catalyst, and make repairs, etc., after a normal run. Duration is usually in days or weeks; it’s the elapsed time between unit shutdown and putting the unit on-stream/on line again.

Work Order (WO)

Paper or electronic document specifying the work needed on an asset. A work order is a unique control document that comprehensively describes the job to be done, including a formal requisition for maintenance, authorization, and charge codes.

Work Order Parts Kitting

The collection and staging of parts required for each individual work order. This step is usually accomplished in a plant's store room within the maintenance shop. Each kit is identified by a number or label so that it can be staged or delivered to the right maintenance crew.

Work Plan

An information packet, sometime called job or work package, provided to the worker; it contains job specific requirements such as task descriptions sequenced in steps; job specific instructions; and safety permits/ procedures, drawings, materials, and tools required to perform the job effectively.

3 Work Flow and Roles

FIG. 2 illustrates a simple maintenance work flow process. There are three types of work:

• PM work including CBM/PdM

• CM - New work resulting from PM / CBM activities

• CM - Breakdown/emergency work (Reactive)

Preventive Maintenance (PM) work should have already been planned, therefore going directly to scheduling. Corrective Maintenance (CM)-breakdown/emergency work-can be executed while bypassing the planning process, and sometime even the scheduling process based on its urgency, depending on whether there is enough time to plan this type of work. The new CM work identified from PM tasks, including CBM activities, should be planned and scheduled before it’s executed.

FIG. 3 illustrates the work flow and key players in the maintenance work flow process. The following are the key players in this process:

• Coordinator-Asset / Resource

• Planner

• Scheduler

• Configuration Specialist/Systems Engineer

• Craft Supervisor

• Work Performer

In addition, other players such as maintenance / systems engineers and MRO-material personnel play supportive roles in the work flow process.

Initially, the required or requested work task gets routed to an asset / resource coordinator. This person represents the asset owner and may work for maintenance or operations. The coordinator helps to prioritize the work, insuring required resources are in the budget, and to schedule asset outages, if necessary. The coordinator forwards the work task to a planner, scheduler, or directly to the craft supervisor or maintenance crew, depending on the task's priority and planning needs. For example, PM type work, which should already be planned, could go directly to the maintenance scheduler. The coordinator may also work with the maintenance engineer or configuration management personnel for any technical help or if a configuration change request is needed.

FIG. 2 Simple Work Flow Process

FIG. 3 Work Flow with Role Process

As the work order (WO) gets routed from one stage to another, a WO status is assigned based on what's being done to that WO. FIG. 4 is a suggested list of Work Order Status Codes. In addition, work type, as suggested in FIG. 5, is also assigned by the coordinator or the planner/scheduler. It’s a good practice to code the work orders to help analyze the data for improvements. More will be said about work order classification in the next section.

Maintenance planners plan the job and create a work plan or job pack age that consists of what work needs to be done; how it will be done; what materials, tools, or special equipment are needed; estimated time; and skills required. The planners need to identify long delivery items and work with stores and purchasing personnel to insure timely delivery. Planners may need to work with maintenance / systems engineers and craft super visors for technical support to insure that the work plan is feasible with sufficient technical details.

Maintenance schedulers-in working with the craft supervisor, coordinator, and other support staff-develop weekly, monthly, and rolling annual long-range plans to execute maintenance work. They are more concerned with when the job should be executed in order to optimize the available resources with the work at hand.

FIG. 4 Work Order Status Codes

FIG. 5 Work Type Category Codes

Craft supervisors take the weekly schedule and assign who will do the job on a daily basis. In addition, they also review work plans from an execution point of view and recommend necessary changes in work plans to the planner and the scheduler. It’s also their responsibility to ensure that the high work quality is maintained and details of work completed are documented properly in the system.

FIG. 6 illustrates a work flow process with its key elements; it includes an example of a productivity report based on delay hours reported.

4 Work Classification and Prioritization

Maintenance Work Task Classifications

Maintenance work tasks can be classified in two major categories:

Preventive and Corrective.

FIG. 6 Work Flow Process.

Preventive Maintenance (PM)

• Time (Calendar)-based maintenance (TBM) (age related)

• Run-based maintenance (RBM) (usage related)

• Condition-based maintenance (CBM aka Predictive) (health related)

• Operator-based maintenance (OBM aka Autonomous Maintenance, a pillar of TPM) (operations related) Corrective Maintenance (CM)

• CM Routine work resulted from PMs: Planned and Scheduled

• CM Major Repairs/Projects: Planned and Scheduled

• CM Reactive: Unplanned/Unscheduled (aka Breakdown/ Emergency)

Preventive Maintenance (PM)

Preventive maintenance refers to a series of actions that are performed on an asset on schedule. That schedule may be either calendar time-based or machine operations dependent (i.e., runtime or the number of machine cycles). These actions are designed to detect, preclude, or mitigate degradation of a system and its components. PM includes cleaning, adjusting, and lubricating, as well as minor component replacement, to extend the life of assets and facilities. The goal of a preventive maintenance approach is to minimize system and component degradation and thus sustain or extend the useful life of the asset. Assets within your facilities should not be allowed to run to the breaking point unless a run-to-failure strategy has been selected for that specific asset. The PM work can be further classified into four categories:


PM-Calendar-Based Maintenance (Time-Based Maintenance or TBM) is typically performed based on the calendar time. Maintenance personnel schedule periodical visits to an asset based on fixed time intervals, for example, every three or six months. Although better than no PM at all, calendar-based PMs are not the optimal way to run PM programs.

They may result in too much time being spent on an asset. Numerous visits to assets with "no data - abnormalities found" can be regarded as wasted maintenance dollars. If this happens, the PM periodicity should be reevaluated and adjusted. Nevertheless, time-based PMs are a good approach for assets having fixed operating schedule such as 24/7 or 80 hours/week operation.


PM-Run-Based Maintenance (RBM) is typically the next step up from calendar-based maintenance. It involves performing PMs based on asset cycles or runtime. Intuitively, this approach makes sense. An asset does not have to be checked repeatedly if it has not been used. Generally speaking for some failure modes, it’s the actual operation of the asset that wears it down, so it makes sense to check the asset after it has been working for a specified amount of time to cause some wear. It may be necessary either to adjust or replace the component.

PM-Condition-Based Maintenance:

PM-Condition-Based Maintenance (CBM), also known as Predictive Maintenance (PdM), attempts to evaluate the condition of an asset by performing periodic or continuous asset monitoring. This approach is the next level up from runtime-based maintenance. The ultimate goal of CBM is to perform maintenance at a scheduled point in time when the maintenance activity is most cost effective yet before the asset fails in-service. The "predictive" component stems from the goal of predicting the future trend of the asset's condition. This approach uses principles of statistical process control and trend analysis to determine at what point in the future maintenance activities will be appropriate and cost effective.


PM-Operator-Based Maintenance (OBM) uses the fact that operators are often the first line of defense against unplanned asset downtime.

OBM assumes that the operators who are in daily contact with the assets can use their knowledge and skills to predict and prevent breakdowns and other losses. OBM is synonymous with autonomous maintenance, one of the basic pillars of Total Productive Maintenance (TPM). TPM is a Japanese maintenance philosophy that involves operators performing some basic maintenance activities. The operators learn the maintenance skills they need through the training program and use those skills on a daily basis during operations.

Corrective Maintenance (CM):

CM, sometimes called repair, is performed to correct the deficiencies found during PM and CBM assessment; it restores the asset in good working condition after it has failed or stopped working. CM is also an action initiated as a result of an asset's observed or measured condition before or after the functional failure. The CM work can be further classified into three categories:


CM-Scheduled is a repair activity performed to mitigate potential asset failure or correct deficiencies found during PM and CBM tasks. It brings an asset to its designed capacity or to an acceptable level in a planned way. This work should be planned and scheduled.

CM-Major Repairs / Projects (Planned and Scheduled)

In many organizations, all major repairs or improvement work valued over a certain threshold--e.g., overhauls and turnaround projects-are treated as capital projects for tax purposes. If these projects are to bring the asset back to the designed capacity, not to add additional capabilities, they should be treated as corrective maintenance. In that case, they should always be planned and scheduled.

CM-Reactive (Unscheduled) aka Breakdowns / Emergency

Corrective Maintenance-Reactive (Unscheduled) is basically repairing of the assets after they fail. This work is also known as breakdown or failure repair work. Most of the time, completing this work interferes with the regular weekly schedule. Unscheduled work costs much more than planned and scheduled work.

Some maintenance professionals classify maintenance in the following categories: PM, CBM/PdM, Proactive Work resulting from PM and CBM/PdM, and CM-Reactive (Breakdowns / Emergency). It really does not matter how we classify them as long as maintenance management systems can provide us data in the format to help us to make the right decisions. Our objective is to reduce reactive breakdowns and then adjust or increase PM and CBM work accordingly.

Sometimes we try to mix maintenance work types with how we respond to get the work done. For example, is emergency work really CM-Unplanned/Unscheduled or is it reactive work that needs to be done now? In some organizations, the breakdown work is called urgent maintenance, but could be done within 48 hours. Some regular work, also sometimes called routine work, may need to be completed in 5 or 7 days.

These examples are not the work type, but just how we respond to get it done.

Sometime a decision is made to take no actions or make no efforts to maintain the asset as the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) originally intended. Therefore, no PM program is established for that particular asset. This maintenance strategy, called Run-to-Failure (RTF), should be applied only after a risk to the business has been analyzed and its cost effectiveness determined. In reality, this work should not be considered failure or reactive work because we made the decision in advance not to perform any PM or CBM based on economic justification.

All maintenance work-tasks are needed to be documented and classified in CMMS/EAM system as described earlier and then, to optimize resources, all work-tasks are prioritized per the organization's priority system for execution. Every organization should, if don't have one; establish a work-tasks order priority system.

Job Priority

Priority codes allow ranking of work orders to get work accomplished in order of importance. Too many organizations neglect the benefits of a clearly-defined prioritization system. Organizational discipline that comes through communication, education, and management support is key to the correct usage of priority codes.

Many organizations have more than one prioritization systems; how ever, most of them have been found to be ineffective. The drawbacks of not clearly defining the priorities include:

• Wasted maintenance man-hours on tasks of low relative importance

• Critical tasks being lost in the maintenance backlog

• Dissatisfied operations customers

• Lack of faith in the effectiveness of the maintenance delivery functions

A disciplined method of prioritization will eliminate tasks being done on a whim and instead allow work to proceed according to its true impact on the overall operations of the plant. It will also allow the maintenance delivery function to be executed in a far more effective manner.

Priority System Guidelines

The system needs to cater to the following requirements equally and provide a universal method of coding all works orders.

• Plant-wide asset priorities, allowing for better plant-wide utilization of resources

• Operations requirements

• Improvement projects

Accurate prioritization covers two distinct decision-making processes. These are:

• Asset criticality

• Impact of task or work to be done on overall operations

The original priority of the work orders needs to be set by the originator of the work order and should be validated by the coordinator. The work originator is the most qualified to make an initial assessment of asset criticality and impact of the work. Listings of major assets and their criticality will help in decision-making for final priority ranking. Lower criticality items or areas will then be easier to recognize. The following criteria can be used to assign asset criticality and work impact (if not corrected), which can then be used to make an objective assessment of overall job priority.

Asset Criticality

Criticality # and Description

5 Critical safety-related items and protective devices

4 Critical to continued production of primary product

3 Ancillary (support) system to main production process

2 Stand-by unit in a critical system

1 Other ancillary assets

Work Impact, If Not Corrected

Work Impact # and Description

5 Immediate threat to safety of people and/or plant

4 Limiting operations ability to meet its primary goals

3 Creating hazardous situations for people or machinery, although not an immediate threat

2 Will affect operations after some time, not immediately

1 Improve the efficiency of the operation process

Work Priority = Asset Criticality X Work Impact WO #1:

Asset Criticality of 5 and Work Impact of 4 gives an over all job priority of 20. WO #2:

Asset Criticality of 4 and Work Impact of 4 gives an over all job priority of 16.

In this case, WO #1 will have the higher priority when compared to WO #2. The combination of the criticality and impact of the work can be cross-referenced to give a relative weight to each task when compared to all other work.

Backlog Management

The combination of work classification and job priority allow an organization to make sense out of their maintenance backlog. A maintenance backlog is very simply the essential maintenance tasks to repair or prevent equipment failures that have not been completed yet. By classifying these maintenance tasks into different categories and then prioritizing within those categories, maintenance backlogs can be developed from an overall organizational perspective or within smaller organizational groups or categories (e.g., PM, CM).

Why manage your backlog at all? Why not just work whatever maintenance tasks come due? The more toward proactive maintenance that an organization moves, the more likely it is, at least in the beginning, that the organization will identify more maintenance tasks than can possibly be addressed within that immediate time period (typically that week).

Therefore, to keep from addressing the low priority tasks or the categories of work that won’t have the largest impact to the overall reliability of the organization, a backlog management system must be developed. Then the most effective approach to the backlog management system requires appropriate work classification and priority.

5 Planning Process

"Poor Planning Leads to Poor Performance"

Author: Unknown, but a wise person

Basics of Planning

Planning defines what work will be accomplished and how.

Scheduling identifies when the work will be completed and who will do it. Planning and scheduling are dependent on one another to be effective.

However, planning is the first step. The ultimate goal of the planning process is to identify and prepare a maintenance craft person with the tools and resources to accomplish this work in a timely and efficient manner. In other words, planning provides maintenance craft workers with everything they need to complete the task efficiently.

Many maintenance engineers and managers consider planning to be nothing more than job estimating and work scheduling. This is not true.

Planning is the key enabler in reducing waste and non productive time, thereby improving productivity of the maintenance workforce. Many organizations have started considering planning to be an important function.

However, they realize that proper planning is not an easy task to do.

It takes time to do it right. The time needed to plan a job properly can be considerable, but it has a high rate of return. It has been documented by many studies including D. Palmer-- author of Maintenance Planning and Scheduling Handbook--and the author's own experience document that proper planning can save 1-3 times the resources in job execution. If a maintenance job is repeatable, as most are, then it’s essential to plan the work properly because it will have a much higher rate of return.

Consider a maintenance shop AB where most of the work is per formed on a reactive basis. The shop has no planner or scheduler on the staff. It has:

• 20 maintenance craft personnel

• 0 planner/schedulers

• 1 supervisor

• Estimated wrench time = 30%

The estimated productive work available (or performed) for AB per week

= 20 people X 40 hours/week X 0.30

= 240 man-hours /week

Now, consider another maintenance shop XY that has a proactive culture and has demonstrated a wrench time of 55%. This shop has the following staff:

• 18 maintenance craft personnel

• 2 planners / schedulers

• 1 supervisor

• Estimated wrench time = 55%

The estimated productive work available (or performed) for XY per week

= 18 people X 40 hours/week X 0.55

= 396 man-hours /week

The XY shop has performed 156 hours (396 - 240) of additional work with the same number of personnel as AB shop. This equates to a 65% increase in resources or 13 more people on the staff.

But as mentioned earlier, planning requires more than just changing personnel from a craft function to a planner/scheduler function. They must have the skills and experience to understand the different types of work and the various details that will need to be organized and assembled for that specific task (skills and resources, steps and procedures, parts and tools).

Understanding Work

The work to be performed needs to be clearly understood. If the scope of the work has not been defined clearly, the maintenance planner must talk to the requester, visit the job site, and identify what steps, procedures, specifications, and tools are required to perform the job correctly. If the job is too large or complicated, it may have to be broken down into smaller sub-tasks for ease of estimating and planning.

Resource Required and Skill Levels

The skill level of the person required to perform the work must be identified with the estimated hours. The job may include one highly skilled craft person and one or more low-to-mid-level skilled maintenance technicians. Many times, maintenance professionals believe that it’s difficult to estimate the time required to perform a specific job, especially if the skills of the maintenance staff range from very low to very high with everyone theoretically at the same pay grade and position.

Therefore, planners must have good knowledge of workforce capabilities and the environment. The skill of the maintenance workforce and basic understanding and knowledge of their trade and plant assets will determine the level of detailed steps and work instructions required in the planning process. Highly-skilled workforces may not need detailed instructions. Job estimating can become easier and potentially more accurate when the jobs are broken down into smaller elements. Long and complex jobs can be difficult to estimate as a whole.

A job standards database such as Means Standards or other standard benchmarks can be used to estimate jobs. It’s a good practice to build a labor standards library for specific jobs, e.g., removing/installing motors, 5-50HP, 100-500 HP, replacing brake shoes on an overhead crane or fork lift, or aligning a pump-motor unit. Predetermined motion times, time studies, and slotting techniques can be used to develop good estimates if tasks are repetitive in nature. An estimate should include work content, travel time, and personal and fatigue allowances.

The following are essential to good estimating practices:

• Familiarity with jobs and plant assets

• Comparing jobs against benchmarks

• Be cautious when using historical data as they may have built-in delays

• Don't try to be 100% accurate

It’s a good practice for the planner to be a former senior craftsperson or a craft supervisor who has been given training in job estimating.

Steps and Procedures

Steps and procedures must be developed with specifications identified to ensure high work quality. The work instructions to disassemble or assemble a complex component should be clear with sketches and drawing as needed. They should include steps at which data such as bearing clearances or temperature readings should be recorded. Human error causes more failures of assets than any other type of error in an organization.

Parts and Tools

Materials, including parts and kit lists, must be identified in order to have the parts available on-site before the job is scheduled. Special tools need to be identified in order to insure the work is completed without delays. For example, does the maintenance person need a torque wrench to tighten a bolt instead of a box end wrench? Furthermore, the torque wrench is of no value if the torque value is not known. Inadequate information may lead to a number of self-induced failures. The objective is to reduce the likelihood that an error could occur by using the wrong part or the potential for a maintenance person to stop work to locate the right tools required for the job. A planned job template is shown in FIG. 7.

It’s a good practice to have a planning check list to ensure that all the steps and documentation have been prepared or arranged. FIG. 8 shows an example of a planner's checklist.

Symptoms of Ineffective Planning

The following are some symptoms of ineffective planning:

• Maintenance people standing around waiting on parts

• High rework

• Poor work performance

• High stockout in the storeroom

• Planners being used to expedite parts

• Maintenance personnel arriving at the job site and waiting for the asset / system to be shut down (wait is over 15min.)

• Frequent trips to storeroom by maintenance personnel

• Production downtime always more than estimated


Work Order Requirement: Replace Electric Motor (10 HP) Job Time Standard: 2 hours - duration 4 Man-hours (2 craft person x 2 hour)

Multi-craft technician or Electrician Craft Type: Parts Required: Part# 11111 Motor, Electric; Location: 22-11-XX Optional Parts: (These parts are not required but could be needed if they are worn out) Part# 2222 Coupling, Flex; Location: 11-00-YY Part# 3311 Bolts, Coupling (9-16 x 3); Location: Free Bin, Shop Special Tools: None Procedure: Step 1: Lock out / tag out (see attached procedure for details). Step 2: Disconnect motor, mark/label wires.

Step 3: Unbolt coupling, inspect coupling and remove motor bolts.

Step 4: Remove motor using jib crane available.

Step 5: Install new motor (check motor is rotating freely). Step 6: Bolt motor and check for soft foot. - record and correct any soft foot findings.

Step 7: Install coupling, bolt motor (torque bolts to xx ft. lbs) and align them using dial gauge or laser within acceptable range +/- (organization standard). Step 8: Remove lock out / tag out.

Step 9: Connect the motor and check for right rotation.

Step 10: Test run.

Step 11: Clean up and return asset to service.

Step 12: Close out the work order in CMMS detailing what was done.

Typical Job Template for Planning a Maintenance Work (Example)

FIG. 7 A Planned Job Template


FIG. 8 A Planner's Check List

Enhancing Planning Capabilities

Planning capabilities can be enhanced by ensuring the following:

• Employee involvement and roles. Educate all maintenance stake holders from plant manager to the maintenance technician in P&S process to ensure all players understand their role.

• Planners may require additional assistance in developing effective work plans. It’s recommended that a senior maintenance technician may be assigned to the maintenance planners for a few hours each day. This will help in developing better work plans.

Rotating other personnel such as craft supervisors and senior craft personnel in planning support jobs is a good practice. It helps them to understand why planning is important and how it functions.

• Maintenance planners must have a library of information including equipment manuals, drawings, specifications, and specific equipment manufacturer manuals and other documentation.

• Planners shouldn't perform additional duties such as a temporary or relief supervisor or a safety or environmental representative.

The planner is not a secretary or clerk.

Additionally, planners shouldn't expedite parts for breakdowns or problems. Their responsibility is to insure that future work is planned properly so it can be executed effectively. This also insures that they don’t get wrapped up in the day-to-day operations and maintenance issues.

• Planners should have technical and hands-on experience as a maintenance technician or craftsman.

• Planned work package, should be reviewed by a craft supervisor to validate that the work package is doable as planned before scheduling.

6 Scheduling Process

Understanding Scheduling Basics

FIG. 9 Integrated Scheduling Plan

Scheduling insures that resources-personnel, material and the asset on which the job is to performed-will be available for maintenance at a specified time and place. Scheduling is a joint maintenance and operations activity in which maintenance agrees to make resources available at a specific time when the asset can be also made available by the operations.

Jobs should be scheduled to have the least impact on normal operations.

Once a job has been planned, its status is moved to "Ready to Schedule." Now the job will go to the scheduler, who works with operations and maintenance supervision to develop a schedule that optimizes operations needs with the availability and capacity of the maintenance resources. Organizations use different strategies for scheduling plans. For example, some use monthly, weekly, and daily schedules whereas others use only weekly schedules. Many organizations also maintain a rolling quarterly and yearly schedules. Yearly schedule are usually high-level schedules providing visibility of major outage and turnaround plans.

FIG. 9 shows examples of an organization's integrated scheduling plan structure.

Schedules are built by assigning dates as requested by the requester.

Some jobs need to be re-prioritized to attend to the most pressing problems first. Thereafter, the large majority of the available time remaining in the schedule is filled with jobs that are selected in accordance with management's priority, or other important criteria. Preventive maintenance jobs should be given high priority; they need to be scheduled to meet their due dates.

Once a job is on the schedule, the materials list should go to the MRO store for parts kitting and material staging before the specified schedule date. In many organizations, the CMMS / EAM system does this work automatically. In addition, the job work package will be delivered or made available to the individuals who will execute the job. When the scheduled time for the job arrives, the maintenance personnel will have everything they need for the job:

1. A work permit to execute the job

2. Asset ready to be released by operation personnel

a. Ready for lock- and tag-out measures

b. The system already flushed or cleaned if necessary

3. Material / parts on hand including specified tools and material handling equipment (or at site)

Right maintenance personnel with proper safety measures - appropriate personal protection equipment (PPE)

There should be no delays when the maintenance personnel arrive at the job site. They should only have to complete the permits and set their own locks of the asset before starting the job. Ideally the job should progress without any hitch; however, there will be some issues. The planner / scheduler should be available to answer any job-related questions and the craft supervisor needs to insure the quality of work.

Doc Palmer, a noted authority in the area of Maintenance Planning and Scheduling, cites six basic scheduling principles:

1. Job plans providing number of persons required, lowest required craft skill level, craft work hours per skill, and job duration information are necessary for effective scheduling.

2. Weekly and daily schedules must be adhered to as closely as possible. Proper priorities must be placed on new work orders to prevent undue interruption of these schedules.

3. A scheduler develops a one-week schedule for each crew based on craft hours available, forecast that shows highest skill avail able, job priorities, and information from the job plans.

Consideration is also made of multiple jobs on the same equipment or system and of proactive and reactive work available

4. The one-week schedule assigns work for every available work hour. The schedule allows for emergencies and high priority, reactive jobs by scheduling a significant amount of work on easily interrupted tasks. Preference is given to completing higher priority work by under-utilizing available skill levels over completing lower priority work.

5. The crew supervisor develops a daily schedule one day in advance using current job progress, the one-week schedule, and new high priority, reactive jobs as a guide. The crew supervisor matches personnel skills and tasks. The crew supervisor handles the current day's work and problem even to rescheduling the entire crew for emergencies.

6. Wrench time is the primary measure of work force efficiency and of planning and scheduling effectiveness. Work that is planned before assignment reduces unnecessary delays during jobs and work that is scheduled reduces delays between jobs.

Schedule compliance is the measure of adherence to the one week schedule and its effectiveness.



Well defined & static-drawings available


Loosely defined, dynamic - changes as inspections made

Capital Project

Can be planned and scheduled in well advance

Planning & Scheduling

Planning & scheduling can't be finalized until scope is approved Fixed, weekly or monthly basis Safety permits Requires shift and daily basis due to scope fluctuations Fixed, usually don't change much Manpower staffing Weekly or bi-monthly Schedule update Shift and daily basis Variable, changes a lot during execution due to scope fluctuations

FIG. 10 Capital Projects vs. Turnaround Maintenance


7 Turnarounds and Shutdowns

A major downtime that "just happens" can be disastrous for a plant. A planned shutdown can provide maintenance organizations an opportunity to identify and address major potential problems or failures in a timely manner to improve plant safety and efficiency. Usually a system or a process is shut down until the requested and specified work is completed and then restarted, thus "turning around" the process/plant. Examples of this type of work can be relining a large furnace, overhauling and upgrading an assembly system, replacing turbine or compressor blades, cleaning and upgrading a chemical reactor, or replacing process tanks. In a production facility, a turnaround usually consists of combinations of investment projects, maintenance projects or overhauls, and typical maintenance activities such as PMs or corrective maintenance activities that require the plant to be removed from service.

All of the major heavy metal and process industries-steel mills, refining, petrochemicals, power generation, pulp & paper, etc.-have their own nomenclature for their maintenance projects. These are called turnarounds, maintenance shutdowns, planned outages, or just maintenance repair projects.

Shutdowns for scheduled major maintenance work and large capital investments are the most expensive and time-consuming of maintenance projects because of the loss of production and the expense of the turn around itself. They can be complex, especially in terms of shared resources; as the complexity increases, they become more costly and difficult to manage. Scheduled shutdowns usually are of a short duration and high intensity. They can consume an equivalent cost of a yearly maintenance budget in just a few weeks. They also require the greatest percent age of the yearly process outage days. Controlling turnaround costs and duration represents a challenge.

A shutdown always has a negative financial impact. This negative impact is due to both loss of production revenue and a major cash outlay for the shutdown expenses. The positive side is not as obvious; therefore, it’s often overlooked. The positive impacts are an increase in asset reliability, continued production integrity, investment in infrastructure, and a reduction in the risk of unscheduled outages or catastrophic failure.

Scope management is one of the major challenges in a turnaround.

The scope will change, sometimes dramatically, and it will impact the schedule. Typically, scope is developed based on information gathered from operating parameters, capital investments, preventive maintenance actions, and predictive tools. Sometimes, we don't have a good under standing of the scope until an asset or system is opened for inspection. As an asset is opened, cleaned, and inspected, the extent of required repairs can be determined and planned.

There are distinct differences between turnaround maintenance work and capital projects. Work scope is well defined in capital projects; how ever, in turnarounds, scope is dynamic and fluctuates a lot. FIG. 10 list major differences between capital projects and turnarounds.

Identifying and appointing a Turnaround Planner well in advance, maybe six to eight months, is a good practice. This planner helps to develop the scope, integrate the full scope of work including resources, and assure readiness for execution of the turnaround. Similarly, identifying and appointing a Turnaround Manager well in advance, maybe three to four months, is also a good practice. The Turnaround Manager should have the delegated authority to lead the turnaround effort to a successful conclusion. In some organizations, new turnaround managers and planners get appointed just after completion of the last turnaround, as an ongoing process to begin planning for the next turnaround. Lessons learned from the previous turnaround are then transferred to the planning and execution of the next turnaround.

The following is a suggested checklist for a turnaround manager:

• Identify the rough scope of the work and resources required, specifically who will be planning, scheduling, and supervising the work.

• Scope finalization--Work with key players to identify the scope as soon as possible. As a minimum, freeze the scope four weeks before the start of a turnaround, depending on the size and complexity of the turnaround. There will be changes. Accommodate them as they arise within the contingency allowances of the turn around. Significant additions that exceed contingency plans require revisiting the total scope of the work and authorization of changes by the stakeholders.

• Work planning--Plan the work and prepare job packages with the help of planners and craftsmen who are familiar with the work / area.

• Ensure the work plans have been reviewed by the assigned craft supervisors from an execution point of view.

• Ensure all drawings, repair instructions, and required materials have been identified and updated, and that their availability has been validated. Check that arrangements have been made to stage the material at proper location.

• Check that special tools and lifting devices (e.g., forklifts, mobile crane of right capacity) have been arranged and will be available at site on the scheduled day. Make sure that lift plans, equipment capacity, and condition for service have been validated prior to scheduled lifts.

• Work scheduling--Break large work into smaller work tasks and then schedule them based on resource availability and duration of shutdown. Schedule all work to be completed in 90% of the approved duration. Leave 10% time as a contingency.

• Identify "critical path" tasks that can impact overall schedule and focus your attention to them.

• Make sure all material, tools, cranes, etc. have been arranged to be delivered at least one day before the start of shutdown.

• Ensure all the necessary permits have been procured and the lock out and tag-out plans have been arranged to provide for safe, efficient access to the scheduled work.

• Establish a communication system. How is work accomplished?

Once problems have been encountered or uncovered and corrective action taken, how will this information be communicated and how will feedback be provided in a timely manner? For large and critical tasks, communication may be necessary on every shift.

Arrange to meet face-to-face with task leaders, planners, and schedulers on a daily basis for schedule execution and on a weekly basis to review progress and change in direction, if needed. The schedule is intended to accomplish the overall goals, while maintaining enough flexibility to accomplish minor changes.

• Arrange a face-to-face meeting with all your key players, including operations personnel, to discuss the goal and schedule of this shutdown. Make sure they understand the cost of this undertaking and impact of delays. Emphasize safety and quality of work. This meeting should be held a few days before the start of the shut down. At a minimum, the Operations personnel should be included in the weekly progress reviews.

• On the first day of the shutdown, make sure all safety measures are taken in shutting down the system and that appropriate personal protection equipment (PPE) are used. All lock-out and tag out should be completed properly.

Attention to the following items may be required and appropriate corrective action planned:

• Barricades. These should be considered to restrict the movement into or the presence of people in restricted areas where overhead lifting, high voltage, radiography, and hazardous materials may be present. Ensure that proper safety signs are displayed in appropriate areas.

• Dust Control Management. A large shutdown can also be the source of excessive dust, depending upon the area and work to be accomplished. Make necessary arrangements to control the dust.

• Emergency Showers and Eye Baths. Make certain that emergency showers and eye baths are available at the right locations.

• Liquid and Solid Waste Handling. Certain cleaning operations may create liquid and solid waste which can be handled within the in-plant industrial sewer system. Other wastes-including asbestos, spent chemicals, sandblast media-may create materials that require special handling, disposal, and access limitations.

Unanticipated disturbance or creations of hazardous materials are show-stoppers often overlooked during the planning process.

Develop and review policies for spill control, and containment and disposal of hazardous material including potential handling problems

• Noise Control. Some repair steps may generate excessive levels of noise. These operations need to be identified and corrective action taken that may require use of ear plugs and posting of "High Noise" area.

• Scaffolding Control. During a shutdown, scaffolding is often moved from one location to another. Ensure all scaffolding from different sources is properly marked and color coded if necessary.

Portable, motorized lift devices add significant flexibility to any scaffold plan for large turnaround.

• Ensure that "return-to-service" is well planned. What are the critical items that needed to be insured before the system can be released for start-up? Involve Operations personnel in developing and executing the return-to-service plan, integrating their standard operating procedures with special concerns involving new or modified equipment. Make sure those critical items are OK. The right sequence of operation and energizing electrical devices safely is very important.

Holding a Post-Turnaround Meeting is one of the last important tasks for the turnaround manager. The area of turnaround planning that is most often underestimated is the area of lessons learned. Assuming the Manager and Planners keep good meeting notes or logs during the planning and execution phases, these notes provide excellent sources of les sons learned and process improvements for future turnarounds.

The time to collect this information is throughout the entire duration of planning and executing the turnaround. The lessons learned are com piled and reviewed with the turnaround team and stakeholders in a post turnaround session. The purpose of the meeting is to discuss what worked and what did not work in the turnaround process while the memories of the turnaround are still fresh in everyone's mind. Recommendations from the team are then woven into the process for future reference and implementation.

8 Measures of Performance

The planning and scheduling processes, like other processes, need to be measured and evaluated to make improvements. A few examples of performance measures and benchmark data include:

1. Percentage of planned work. This measure is the percentage of all jobs that have been planned. It assumes that all parts, procedures, specifications, tools, drawings, etc., have been identified before the job is scheduled. The benchmark is 90%.

2. Percentage of schedule compliance. This measure is the percentage of work accomplished that is agreed upon or on the weekly schedule. The benchmark is 85% or better.

3. Percentage of time that kits (materials and parts) are delivered on time. This measure is calculated as the number of times the kits (material and parts) were delivered on time divided by the total number of kits delivered. This measure affects the planner's ability to plan jobs properly. Expediting parts adds unnecessary and wasteful cost to the P&S process.

4. Percentage of time the right part (s) is delivered. As part of the planning process, planners and schedulers should have the confidence that a specific vendor will deliver the right part when required. Otherwise this problem could create a delay in performing the work. The benchmark is 99% or higher.

5. Percentage of work generated from a formal work PM/CBM.

Most work should come from identifying the degradation of a component or asset far enough in advance of any PM/CBM tasks that the job can be planned and scheduled properly, thus minimizing unexpected delays and production loss.

6. Percent Rework. This measure is the percent of work orders requiring rework. Each organization needs to define what rework means to them. It may differ from one organization to another.

Examples of rework include revisiting an asset to fix something within 7, 15, or 30 days of a PM or major repair work performed.

The benchmark number is less than 2%.

7. Backlog. This measure shows how much work is ready to be per formed. This measure is important to keep maintenance effectively utilized. A 4-6 week's backlog of work is a good benchmark.

9 Summary

Planning and scheduling have the highest potential impact on timely and effective accomplishment of maintenance work. The planning and scheduling functions are where all maintenance activities are coordinated.

Although planning and scheduling are closely related, they are two distinct functions.

• Planning: what and how

• Scheduling: when and who

Planning is what and how to do the job. It's an advanced preparation of a work task so that it can be executed in an efficient and effective manner some time in future. It involves detailed analysis to determine and describe the work to be performed, task sequence, and identification of required resources-including skills, crew size, man-hours, spare parts and other service materials, special tools, and any lifting device or equipment needed. It also includes identification of special lock-out and tag-out or any special permit required before the start of the task.

Scheduling is when and who is going to do the job. It's a process by which resources are allocated to a specific job based on operational requirements and resources availability.

Planning and scheduling eliminates or minimizes the waiting time and delays. When maintenance personnel have to return to the store room numerous times to locate the required parts, or to locate a specific tool, it delays the work execution and adds additional cost to the job. Poor planning and scheduling lead to poor utilization of maintenance resources.

10 Self Assessment Questions

__1 Draw a workflow chart to show work from a request to completion.

__2 Explain each role as shown in the workflow chart from Q 1.

__3 What is the purpose of a job priority system?

__4 Why do we need to manage maintenance backlog? What is a good benchmark?

__5 What are the symptoms of ineffective planning?

__6 Should planners help schedulers or craft supervisors during an emergency? If yes, explain.

__7 Who are key players in scheduling process? Explain their roles.

__8 What are the key differences between planning and scheduling processes?

__9 Discuss work types and the benefits of work classifications.

__10 What are the key differences between capital projects and turnarounds?

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