Guide to Mechanical / electrical equipment for buildings: PART III: ILLUMINATION

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It has been estimated that 90% of the information we obtain from our senses is received via sight. Vision, in turn, is made possible by light, the proper provision of which in buildings is discussed in this part of the guide.

Because architecture is a uniquely visually oriented profession, its practitioners must thoroughly understand the art and science of illumination in order to be able to integrate enclosure and light into a working whole that will appear, and function, according to the design intent. A building designer must have a sufficient background, both technically and aesthetically, to be able to understand and apply the principles of light and lighting.

Section 11, "Lighting Fundamentals," introduces the subject with terminology, definitions, basic characteristics, and measurements. A clear distinction is made between the study of light as a physical phenomenon and its study for visual photometric effect. The former considers light as a form of energy, whereas the latter views it as a visual phenomenon (i.e., the physiological response to a form of energy). Pursuing the subject of human response to light, the Section continues with a discussion of factors in visual acuity. The Section concludes with an overview of quantitative and qualitative indicators of lighting system performance and acceptability.

Section 12, "Light Sources," covers the two principal light sources: daylight and electric light. The characteristics of daylight as a source are presented. The Section continues with extensive information on electric light sources, covering in detail incandescent, fluorescent, mercury-vapor, metal-halide, and sodium-vapor lamps, plus a few recently developed electric light sources of potential interest to designers. The material includes a detailed description of lamp construction and operating characteristics, including accessories such as ballasts and lamp holders. Emphasis is placed on luminous efficacy and overall life-cycle costs.

Section 13, "Lighting Design Process," leads the reader step-by-step through a recommended design process. Cost issues, power budgets, energy considerations, and approaches to providing appropriate illumination are discussed.

Section 14, "Daylighting Design," provides a discussion of daylighting as a passive design solution. Means of providing daylighting to a building are presented, along with commonly used methods for daylighting design and analysis.

Section 15, "Electric Lighting Design," discusses lighting fixture characteristics, illumination calculation techniques, and lighting control strategies and techniques. The Section concludes with a discussion of lighting design evaluation. Illustrative examples are used to demonstrate and compare calculation techniques.

Section 16, "Electric Lighting Applications," applies the knowledge and techniques from the preceding Sections to specific building occupancies (residential, educational, commercial, and industrial), each of which has its special needs. Special topics are discussed in detail, including emergency lighting, exterior lighting, and lighting for computer-intensive work areas.

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